Learning objectives are actually quite trivial things. Well, as the term already says, that objectives are goals. Goals of what the learner will learn or will be able of after a certain course. Although this is indeed something quite simple it is very helpful, for the learner and teacher.
If learning goals are set up well, in the beginning of a course, the learner will know what is coming. The learner has the chance to prepare for the next objective. On the other hand the teacher has a clear structure to hold onto. As well as what questions the final exam should include.
Learning objectives make clear what is important in a course or a lecture.
Example: "The student will learn to define learning objectives."
Some verbs useful for defining learning objectives are: list, identify, state, describe, define, solve, compare, operate